暑假為期兩週的讀書會
這次的主題是tense&aspect
中文就是時式與時貌,兩者一起就是所謂的時態。

用書則是Calota Smith的Parameter of aspect和其他節錄的書籍Comrie和Reichebach
那我負責的是The Aspectual System of English部分

Frist,
English offers a consistent, obligatory choice of viewpoints in all tenses.
The perfective is available for all situation types and is the dominant viewpoint in this lg.
The perfectives is closed 表示完成,事情結束的意思
The states is open 表示未完成,事情還持續發生或是沒有結束的意思
The progressives is imperfective (non-stative sentence) 未完成就是英文中普遍的進行式
Temporal location: conveyed by inflectional past/ present/ periphrastic tenses

Second,
Aspect is symmetrical
Present sentence is open presentation (現在式表示未完成)
Presence or absence of the verbal auxiliary to test

The part of perfective:
The perfective viewpoint appears with sentence of all situation types
(zoom out 看整體事件)
Non-stative perfectives present events as closed (非狀態性的一般才能用完成)
The schema of a state does not include its endpoints
because they involve change of state.

Activities -- an arbitrary final endpoint in the situation type (沒有制式的終點)
Accomplishments -- a natural final endpoint in the situation type (自然結束的終點)
Semelfactives and Achievement -- the single-stage event in the situation type
Statives -- no endpoint in the situation type (狀態是持續而沒有一定終點)

The part of imperfective:
Imperfective viewpoints focus on part of a situation (zoom in 看事件的部分,通常是過程)
The main English imperfective is a progressive (only for non-stative events and durative)
Achievement with the progressive refers to have the preliminary stage (達成的過程太短)

Resultative sentences may seem anomalous.
Focus an interval that follows a change of state
Maked aspectual sentence which present states as events,
endowing them with the dynamism and other connotations of events

Temporal properties:
Dynamic/Static: Dynamic is that events have the semantic property of dynamism
and static is not (動態與靜態之分)
Completion/Duration: associated with telic situation types,
and expressed by adverbials and main verbs (完成和持續之分)
Durative/Instantaneous: simple duration or not (瞬間性和持續性)
Non-detachability: durative telic events (不可區分的)

Activiyies:
Atelic durative events

Accomplishments:
Durative events with natural final endpoint
Result in a change of state

SemelfactivesL:
Single-stage atelic events which must have a countable nominal argument
Not compatible with progressive
Multiple-event activities with expressions of duration
(第二行和第三行似乎矛盾但是用shifted可解釋)

Acheivements:
Instantaneous changes of state
Allow the progressive viewpoint,
focusing preliminary, detachable stages of the event

Satives:
Verbal and copular(Be動詞的)

大概就是英文中的時貌
報告完後
總算比較懂一點了 哈哈XD
不過現在又忘的差不多了
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